Interactive Summaries

Chapter 8: Metabolism

Alcohol Metabolism

In the first stage of alcohol metabolism ADH catalyzes the conversion of alcohol to . As much as 20% of alcohol is changed to that substance in . The metabolic reactions that convert alcohol to the above consume NAD+ while forming . The resulting build up dramatically slows the citric acid cycle. As a result cells route most of the acetyl CoA to the synthesis of .

As alcohol builds up in the body, the body recognizes it as foreign and routes it into the primary overflow pathway called the . The ordinarily uses this system to metabolize drugs and detoxify foreign substances. When exposed to large doses of alcohol repeatedly this pathway's capacity and speed increase.

When Alcohol Becomes a Problem

The fastest that alcohol can reach the brain is about . The acute effect of swallowing a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time is . The earliest stage of liver damage from alcohol is . Persistent inflammation of the liver is also known as alcoholic . This develops in 10 to 35% of heavy drinkers. Cirrhosis damages the liver by .

Alcoholics and Malnutrition

Folate, thiamin and are the vitamins most often affected by alcoholism. Thiamin deficiency contributes to the classic conditions of alcoholism such as the brain damage of Wernicke-Korsakoff. Magnesium deficiency due to alcoholism may cause . Unless there is bleeding an alcoholics levels tend to be higher than normal in the blood and liver. Copper and may be elevated during advanced stages of alcoholism.

Large amounts of alcohol in the blood has the effect of raising levels. When chronic heavy drinkers eat a normal diet they .

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