Interactive Summaries

Chapter 4: Carbohydrates

What are Carbohydrates?

Carbohydrates are organic compounds that contain carbon, oxygen, and in the ratio . The two main types of sugars are monosaccharides and disaccharides. Glucose, , and fructose are the three most common . Disaccharides are created when a chemically joins two monosaccharides. A separates disaccharides into monosaccharides. This reaction takes place during .

makes up at least one of two sugar molecules in every disaccharide. also known as levulose tastes the sweetest of all sugars. are essential compounds of nucleic acids, but are synthesized in the body and are not needed in the diet.

When a food label lists sugar as an ingredient the term refers to . Human milk tastes sweeter than cow's milk because it has a higher concentration of lactose. When digestive enzymes break down starch in the mouth, a sweet taste is sensed. This sweet taste can be attributed to .

Complex Carbohydrates

Oligosaccharides are carbohydrate chains of sugar molecules. Raffinose and are the two most common oligosaccharides and are found in peas, dried beans, and lentils. These two oligosaccharides are broken down by . Starches are . There are two main forms of starch in plants. Amylose is made of long, straight chains of glucose molecules; amylopectin is made of branched chains of glucose molecules.

In human cells, glycogen can be broken down rapidly into single glucose molecules. and the liver are the two main sites of glycogen storage. The liver uses glycogen to regulate blood glucose levels.

There are many types of dietary fiber. The in fruit gives fruit its body; when it breaks down fruit becomes mushy. Carrageenan is a that thickens and adds texture to pie fillings and puddings.

Soluble fibers dissolve in water, while insoluble fibers do not. Some are soluble fibers. are insoluble fibers. Wheat bran and most whole grain cereals are rich in insoluble fibers. When fiber intake increases so should intake to avoid excess intestinal gas and bloating.


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