Interactive Summaries

Chapter 18: Food Safety and Technology: Microbial Threats and Genetic Engineering

Food Safety

Researchers at the CDC estimate that deaths are caused by foodborne illnesses each year. The seven most common foodborne pathogens are responsible for $6.5 to $34.9 billion in medical costs and lost productivity each year. Foodborne illnesses can result directly from infection with a or from the toxins it produces. Improperly canned foods, as well as garlic in oil preparations, are sources of . Choosing eggs cooked over easy; could be disastrous because inadequate cooking can leave you vulnerable to .

One way to avoid consuming the chemicals used in pesticides is to eat organic foods. Organic foods are grown . Products made with 50% to 95% organic ingredients can use the label .

are chemical compounds created in the manufacturing, combustion, and chlorine bleaching of pulp and paper. Some scientists theorize that these compounds cause in humans.

Food Technology

The artificial sweeteners aspartame and saccharin are examples of . The evaluates both direct and indirect additives for safety. Additives fall in to four regulatory categories. Salt, sugar and spices are in the category. Congress first defined this category in 1958 when it passed the Food Additives Amendment to the FD&C Act.

The most common antimicrobial agents used to preserve food are . Vitamin C and vitamin E can be used to preserve the color and flavor of foods that may be lost with exposure to air because they are .

The FDA has approved food irradiation for . Irradiation can reduce pathogens in raw poultry by as much as . Genetically modified foods are already available on the market. Genetic engineering allows scientists to transform a plant one gene at a time. This method is much faster than the traditional ways of cross breeding where scientists created by mating two plants of different species until they created a new species. has/have refused to use genetically modified crops primarily because of .


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