Interactive Summaries

Chapter 17: Life Cycle: From Childhood Through Adulthood


During the childhood years, which are from 1 year of age to adolescence, a typical child will gain 5 pounds and grow 2-3 inches annually. The nutrient that is the hardest for children to get adequate amounts of in their diets is . In one study, upper-income Caucasian toddlers were found to have low intakes of vitamins D and E. The authors of the study contribute the low intakes to the toddlers following their parents . One of the greatest barriers to a child receiving proper nutrition is poverty. WIC is designed to follow children through their fifth birthdays by providing vouchers for milk, eggs, cereal, juice, cheese, and peanut butter or dried beans. Many people do not use this program because . In children over , efforts to lower fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol intake may reduce risks of chronic diseases. This is supported by the American Heart Association, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and the AAP, but not all agencies advocate cutting fat from children’s diets before adolescence. Childhood obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in the United States. A factor that is involved in a child becoming obese is . The most popular strategy for treating childhood obesity is . Lead toxicity is a concern for children especially in areas of poverty where lead sources tend to be higher. Lead toxicity can result in .


Adolescence is defined as the time between the onset of puberty and adulthood. It is a time of great physical growth and development. A typical girl has achieved about of her adult height by menarche. On average a boy will grow during puberty. is complete when the epiphyses close. Adolescent females should expect and be prepared to gain about pounds during puberty. By adulthood a typical woman's body composition is and a man's is . The energy needs during puberty are higher than at any other time during life except . During puberty, adolescents gain 15 percent of their adult height and accumulate half of their ultimate bone mass. This is an important time of life that may influence the risk of later in life. Adolescents are often concerned with acne. Treatments for acne include two medications such as Retin-A and Accutane, which both contain vitamin A. Vitamin A . Adolescents are known to frequently participate in behaviors that are incompatible with good health. Smoking tobacco is apt to appetite; smoking marijuana is apt to appetite.

Staying Young while Growing Older

Today older people represent the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population. The size of the population of people 65-years-old and older is expected to between 2000 and 2030. Until the 1990s health and nutrition surveys barely addressed the needs of late adulthood. The DRIs . Safe, deliberate, and modest weight loss can reduce cardiovascular risks for older, overweight people who are otherwise healthy. People who gain weight after age have a significantly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Lack of in an older adult's diet can lead to suppressed immunity, decreased muscle mass, slowed wound healing, and osteoporosis. Sustaining mobility is an important aspect of healthy aging. One of the negative aspects of losing mobility is .

Nutrient Needs of the Mature Adult

The NHANES III found that for the most part older Americans were consuming RDA for energy. For older men the RDA for energy is kilocalories per day; for women the amount is kilocalories per day. As we age protein needs . Fiber intake is important to monitor because it may help . When elders consume a very low-fat diet they may be doing more harm than good because a high carbohydrate diet may elevate triglyceride levels and . When the new DRIs for vitamin D were created, it was assumed that . It became easier for elders to consume enough because on January 1, 1998 the government began requiring all enriched cereal grains to be fortified with 1.4 milligrams of this nutrient per kilogram of grain.

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