Interactive Summaries

Chapter 11: Water-Soluble Vitamins

The B Vitamins

Thiamin consists of a sulfur containing ring and a nitrogen-containing ring. easily breaks the bonds between the two rings. Thiamin is a component of TPP which is an important coenzyme in glucose metabolism, the citric acid cycle, and many other reactions. Wheat germ and are the richest sources of thiamin. In industrialized countries thiamin deficiency is most common in . One of the first symptoms of a thiamin deficiency is . Because many B vitamins are in the same foods as thiamin, thiamin deficiency and other B vitamin deficiencies often go hand and hand.

The niacin coenzymes participate in . Without NAD+ glycolysis would halt, shutting off the body’s supply of energy from glucose. Niacin is a unique B vitamin because the body can produce it from the amino acid . In order to use this amino acid to make niacin, however, your body also needs riboflavin, vitamin B6 and iron. Mushrooms and chicken liver are good sources of niacin. During the early 1900s, became a staple in the southwestern United States, which led to a huge outbreak of pellagra. This is because a protein in this food tightly binds to niacin and affects its absorption. During World War II it became mandatory to enrich bread, flour, and cereals with niacin to help prevent pellagra.

Without vitamin B6 all amino acids become essential because this vitamin’s coenzyme participates in . PLP also supports the synthesis of both white and red blood cells. A lack of PLP could lead to anemia because red blood cells will be smaller than normal and cannot carry adequate amounts of oxygen. The type of fruit that contains the most vitamin B6 is . Alcoholism can lead to a vitamin B6 deficiency because . Megadoses of vitamin B6 can lead to .

Vitamin C

When comparing humans to many other animals, humans need . Vitamin C plays an important role in the formation of the most abundant protein in the human body . Vitamin C works independently as an antioxidant, it also helps to recycle oxidized . Vitamin C is needed to synthesize . When a person consumes more vitamin C than his or her body needs, the remainder is . The first signs of scurvy arise after of a vitamin C free diet. Less severe signs of inadequate vitamin C intake are . If a healthy person consumes more than of vitamin C a day for a prolonged period of time this may lead to nausea, abdominal cramps, and nosebleeds.


(Optional) Fill out the fields below to send a copy of your score to your professor:
Your Name:  
Your Email:  
Professor's Email:  



« Back to All Interactive Summaries