Interactive Summaries

Chapter 8: Energy Balance and Weight Management: Finding Your Equilibrium

Energy In

There are three processes that influence eating. is the first process followed by which lets you know that you are full. The final process determines the interval between meals. The difference between hunger and appetite is that hunger is a(n) for food while appetite is the for food.
tend to delay satiation and encourage overeating. tend to enhance satiety by slowing gastric emptying and enhance satiation with their bulking properties. Overall energy availability is a more important regulator than circulating nutrient levels.
Exposure to tends to increase the amount we eat; exposure to tends to reduce it. NPY is a recently identified neuroendocrine factor that triggers decreased energy expenditure and increased food intake. It stimulates a desire to eat rather than a desire for energy. Fat cells produce , which tells the CNS how much fat the body is storing.

Energy Out

The minimum energy necessary to sustain life is called the . This type of energy is measured as either the basal metabolic rate or the . Over time, a person’s RMR varies by less than 5%. A person’s RMR as they age, because some lean tissue is replaced by fat. Lean tissue has metabolic activity than fat tissue.
Energy costs of physical activity depend on the activity’s type, and intensity. The energy associated with fidgeting and maintenance of posture is called .
The energy output our bodies expend while digesting, absorbing, and metabolizing nutrients is collectively called the thermic effect of food. The TEF is lowest for and highest for . Typically, TEF accounts for approximately of total energy expenditure.

Body Composition

The National Institutes of Health released guidelines in 1998 that define obesity in adults as a BMI of greater than kg/m2. The BMI still has a limited ability to distinguish between muscle weight and excess fat weight. Densitometry is the measure of body density. In , body density is calculated using the above water weight, the submerged weight and, the quantity of water displaced during submersion. Done correctly, body composition estimates from skinfold thickness measurements correlate well with . This type of measurement is especially useful in tracking changes to subcutaneous fat distribution over time. Body fat distribution can be a risk factor for heart disease and diabetes. obesity is more common in and refers to excess fat being distributed around the hips and thighs. obesity is more common in and has fat distributed around the abdomen.

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