Interactive Summaries

Chapter 10: Water and Minerals: The Ocean Within

Water: The Essential Ingredient for Life

Overall, water makes up of your weight. The body maintains its electrolyte balance through the intake and excretion of water and the movement of ions. Positively charged ions are known as . Negatively charged ions are known as . About of body water is in the intracellular fluid and is in extracellular fluid. The major components of extracellular fluid are interstitial fluid and . To maintain the balance of sodium and potassium, all cell membranes incorporate sodium-potassium pumps that actively pump sodium out of the cell while allowing potassium back in. When electrolytes are more concentrated on one side of the membrane, then . Cells must contain the right amount of water. Too much and the cell will burst; too little and the cell will shrink. Too much water in the surrounding spaces causes .

Minerals

Minerals are essential, or indispensable . Absorption of them is limited by several factors, among them . Unlike vitamins, minerals are not destroyed by . Like vitamins, however, minerals are micronutrients.” They are needed in relatively . Minerals are often grouped as major minerals and trace minerals. Compared with major minerals, the total amount of trace mineral in your body is . Foods from both plants and animals are sources of minerals. Generally speaking, however, , are more reliable mineral sources. There are major minerals. Two disorders in which major minerals play critical parts are hypertension and , which primarily affects .


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