Interactive Summaries

Chapter 1: Food Choices: Nutrients and Nourishment

Why Do We Eat the Way We Do?

Pauline is a three-year-old child who will only eat bananas and PBJ. Her mother, Meg, is frustrated because she will not try anything new. Pauline is exhibiting characteristics of . Because Meg is an adult and her tastes have matured, she has a greater appreciation for the and texture of different foods. She loves the sensation of , the Japanese term that describes the taste produced by the amino acid . Meg tries hard to control her weight throughout the year, but like most Americans, she tends to gain weight around the holidays when she attends many family parties. The phenomenon that describes why Meg eats more at these functions is called .

Introducing the Nutrients

Food is a mixture of chemicals of which some are essential for normal body function. These essential chemicals are called . Carbohydrate, fat and protein are all needed in relatively large amounts in the diet and are therefore classified as . Vitamins and minerals are classified as , as they are needed in relatively small amounts in the diet. Nutrients are composed of organic compounds that contain and inorganic compounds that do not contain this element. Nonessential substances in plants that may possess health-protective effects are referred to as . These “plant chemicals” have important health functions which may reduce risk for heart disease and cancer.

are nutrients made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and are a major fuel source for the body. The term lipids refers to substances such as fats and oils, but also to fat-like substances in foods such as and phospholipids. Proteins are organic compounds made of smaller building blocks called . are organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen and possibly nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur and other elements. are simple inorganic substances that have structural and regulatory roles. are major minerals required by the body in relatively large quantities. Microminerals (or trace minerals) are required in the diet in relatively small amounts.

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